He estimated the Earths circumference to be nearly 250,000 stadia (25,000 miles). He developed systems of latitudes and longitudes and ascertained accurate length of equator using Gnomon. His interest in Plato led him to write his very first work at a scholarly level, Platonikos, inquiring into the mathematical foundation of Plato's philosophies. He studied in Athens at the Lyceum. He is best known for being the first person known to calculate the circumference of the Earth, which he did by using the extensive survey results he could access in his role at the Library; his calculation was remarkably accurate. 4. It is thought that Eratosthenes may also have been a pupil of Callimachus. % complete "Zeno and Stoic Consistency," in Phronesis. He also calculated the tilt axis of the Earth. A librarian named Hipparchus later placed lines of longitude at regular intervals, and this was improved even more by Ptolemy, who added cardinal directions and divided degrees into minutes and seconds. Eratosthenes was called The Father Of Geography, since he was very knowledgeable about the earth. Who succeeded Eratosthenes as the chief librarian of Alexandria? Hipparchus divided the Earth's surface into 360 degrees. References to the works of Eratosthenes are preserved thanks to other authors, since when the library of Alexandria was lost, practically all of his work was lost. _____ includes the study of the earth at History of Oceanography TIMELINE Print PDF Zoom Out Events Egyptian trade on nile 4000 B.C. Eratosthenes: The Measurement of the Earth's Circumference Eratosthenes. Eratosthenes made calculations in which he discovered that in a year there were 365 days and every four years there were 366 days. Finally he wrote: Happy father, Ptolemy, because with your son you enjoy the age! The fourth is the prominent grammarian Aristophanes of Byzantium, who succeeded Eratosthenes as head of the Library of Alexandria. Eratosthenes is named for the ancient Greek who first estimated the Earth's circumference around 240 BC. Eratosthenes experiment was highly regarded at the time, and his estimate of the Earths size was accepted for hundreds of years afterwards. For his studies on the earth, Eratosthenes is known as the "father of geography." Name the major oceans and their main characteristics. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how telepresence technology was used by oceanographers in the field to assess and analyze three shipwrecks and numerous artifacts discovered during exploratory expeditions of the submerged plateau known as Eratosthenes Seamount (Fig. But Eratosthenes, who had wide-ranging interests including poetry, theatre and ethics, was first and foremost an astronomer, and Alexandria was the place to go for astronomical studies. All Categories. Then numbers that are not prime are discarded. Eratosthenes' method of measuring Earth's circumference, This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Eratosthenes, Famous Scientists - Biography of Eratosthenes, Ancient History Encyclopedia - Biography of Eratosthenes, Eratosthenes - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Biography of Eratosthenes, Greek Geographer - ThoughtCo Eratosthenes - GIS Wiki | The GIS Encyclopedia PDF List Of World Capitals By Countries Wordpress The simplified method works by considering two cities along the same meridian and measuring both the distance between them and the difference in angles of the shadows cast by the sun on a vertical rod (a gnomon) in each city at noon on the summer solstice. Systmone Remote Access, Omissions? Location, place, human-environment interaction, movement, and geography are the five themes of geography. It is not known when he wrote his works, but they highlighted his abilities. 5 best Master's degrees in Clinical and Health Psychology to study in Spain, The 40 phrases of Michael Jackson, the King of Pop, 7 keys for someone to open up more to you, The 10 most romantic cities on the planet, Social behavior: definition and explanatory theories, Postcoital dysphoria: symptoms, causes and treatment, Scriptophobia: symptoms, causes and treatment, Nematodes: characteristics, classification, reproduction, nutrition, Specialized texts: characteristics, structure, types, examples. Contributions of Greeks in the field of Physical Geography: The Greeks made remarkable development in the field of physical geography. According to Macrobious, Eratosthenes made the diameter of the Sun to be about 27 times that of the Earth. The correct answer is to determine the Earths circumference. Ocean Exploration & Ancient Greece | Study.com He lived in Athens until Ptolemy Evergetes, the king of Egypt . He was a renowned mathematician, poet, geographer, astronomer, and music theorist. A polymath who served as librarian at Alexandria and tutor to the future King Ptolemy IV, Eratosthenes created the terminology of . The estimate is over 99 percent of the actual distance of 40,008 km. Digital Radiography Technique, Defending the theory that vision is due to a flow emanating from the eye, Ptolemy analyzed the reflection of light on flat and spherical mirrors, and its refraction when it crosses the surface between two transparent media. That is why he thought that he would arrive in Asia on his journey and did not realize that a new continent had arrived. He calculated the circumference of the Earth to be about 252,000 stadi which is equal to about 24,662 miles. Eratosthenes was a Greek mathematician with a strong interest in geography. ". In the text, he described the inhabited earth and the people who lived there. The first place must go to Eratosthenes, the man who coined the term "geography" between 275 and 194 BC. In number theory, he introduced the sieve of Eratosthenes, an efficient method of identifying prime numbers. PDF Oceanography Chapter 1 Oceanography - craftonhills.edu Eratosthenes (276-195 BCE) was an ancient Greek Alexandrian scholar, native of Cyrene, who attained distinction in many fields including philosophy, mathematics, astronomy and history. A Tradition of Exploration Norwegian pioneers throughout history The Viking Age From 800 to 1066 AD, the Vikings journeyed in their longships to explore and establish trade around Europe. In the 1960's, Eratosthenes crater was identified by Gene Shoemaker and Robert Hackman as a key stratigraphic marker delimiting the longest period (Eratosthenian) of the lunar timescale, thought to range from about 3.2 to 1.1 billion years old! He believed it was a fixed globe whose changes only took place on the surface. Greek Scholar's Work Shows Usefulness of Measurement. Eratosthenes was an illustrious ancient Greek polymath who had expertise in mathematics, astronomy and geography. b. Eratosthenes He was a Greek mathematician who had a profound interest in geography. What Is The Contributions Of Eratosthenes? - On Secret Hunt Contribution of Arabs in the Field of Geography - Your Article Library Several astronomers and mathematicians tried to accurately measure the circumference of the Earth before and after Eratosthenes, but it was Eratosthenes who succeeded. He concluded that the circumference of the earth was about 50 times greater than the distance from Alexandria to Aswan. Eratosthenes now continued from his knowledge about the Earth. Alexander the Great conquered Cyrene in 332 BC, and following his death in 323 BC, its rule was given to one of his generals, Ptolemy I Soter, the founder of the Ptolemaic Kingdom. He described the geography of the world into two parts: (i) Europa, and (ii) Libya (Africa including Asia). In Athens he met so many philosophers that he was both amazed and overwhelmed. Eratosthenes who made observations at Syene (Aswan) and Alexandria calculated the circumference of the earth as 250,000 stadia (25,000 miles). Events Egyptian trade on nile 4000 B.C. His prime number sieve made it simple for Greek mathematicians (and now-frustrated modern students!) It allows scientists to pinpoint specific locations using a system of degrees. The ancient Greek scholar Eratosthenes is dubbed the father of geography. He was the first to use the word geography, and he also had a small-scale understanding of the planet that helped him determine the earths circumference. Eratosthenes also studied under the poet and scholar Callimachus who had also been born in Cyrene. He is regarded as the first scientific geographer who measured the length of the equator almost accurately (24860 miles) on sound principles with the help of gnomon. Eratosthenes of Cyrene was a Greek polymath: a mathematician, geographer, poet, astronomer, and music theorist. Eratosthenes measured Earths circumference mathematically using two surface points to make the calculation. The pecialized text They are thoe that contain a vocabulary and terminology pecific to a certain branch of knowledge. . A) discovery of a trade route from Europe around the African continent to India B) the introduction of latitude and longitude lines on maps of the world C) a reasonably accurate calculation of the circumference of our planet Eratosthenes is said to have coined the term geography in Ancient Greece. He expanded the library's holdings: in Alexandria all books had to be surrendered for duplication. Trigonometry in the modern sense began with the Greeks. Term. Hermes It was one of his works, in which he addressed the life of the god, and another was named Erigone. Required fields are marked *. Eratosthenes Contribution to Geography Notes By NETSET CORNER NASA - Eratosthenes Crater and the Lunar Timescale It starts with 2 and all the numbers that are multiples of that first digit are crossed out, then the same is done with the next number that is not crossed out and so on. He was the chief librarian of the Great Library of Alexandria. One of the main contributions of Eratosthenes to science and astronomy was his important work regarding They helped find new colonies, explored some of North America and were great navigators. 3. He sketched, quite accurately, the route of the Nile to Khartoum, showing the two Ethiopian tributaries. Cyrene was founded by Greeks from Thera before 600 BC, and it prospered as an independent city until the arrival of the Hellenic era. He made two important contributions, out of which one was later proved wrong, while the other was right, but it was overlooked for a long time. Corrections? Arabs were highly influenced by the Greek ideas about the shape and size of the earth. [6], Eratosthenes made several important contributions to mathematics and science, and was a friend of Archimedes. On the basis of this Geography is the study of locations and the relationships between people and their surroundings. Updates? Ptolemy is known for his three scholarly works: the Almagest which focused on astronomy and geometry, the Tetrabiblos which focused on astrology, and, most importantly, Geography which advanced geographic knowledge. III. Bacon is a piece of salt-cured pork cut from the belly of a pig. When You Breathe In Your Diaphragm Does What. in, Last edited on 26 February 2023, at 18:23, Eratosthenes' map of the (for the Greeks) known world, "Aratus's "Phenomena," Cleomedes's "On the Circular Motions of the Celestial Bodies," and Nichomachus's "Introduction to Arithmetic" Viewer World Digital Library", "Eratosthenes on the "measurement" of the Earth", "The origin and value of the stadion unit used by Eratosthenes in the third century B.C", "Eratosthenes's large Earth and tiny universe", "Eratosthenes' Parallel of Rhodes and the History of the System of Climata", English translation of the primary source for Eratosthenes and the size of the Earth, About Eratosthenes' methods, including a Java applet, How the Greeks estimated the distances to the Moon and Sun, Measuring the Earth with Eratosthenes' method, List of ancient Greek mathematicians and contemporaries of Eratosthenes, New Advent Encyclopedia article on the Library of Alexandria, Eratosthenes' sieve in classic BASIC all-web based interactive programming environment, Open source Physics Computer Model about Eratosthenes estimation of radius and circumference of Earth, Eratosthenes, Katasterismoi (or Astrothesiae), original text, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Eratosthenes&oldid=1141770053, The first book was something of an introduction and gave a review of his predecessors, recognizing their contributions that he compiled in the library. Eratosthenes (276 BC - 194 BC) was an Ancient Greek scientist and philosopher who did work in astronomy, geometry, geography, mathematics, as well as poetry and history. Prince Henry the navigators contribution to ocean exploration included? In 1609 he published Astronomia Nova, delineating his discoveries, which are now called Keplers first two laws of planetary motion. At the age of about 50 he returned to Alexandria and soon became director of the Library. % complete . When you multiply by wall height, you get CFM. Eratosthenes made several important contributions to mathematics and science, and was a friend of Archimedes, the great mathematician. All of the planets, except for Earth, were named after Greek and Roman gods and godesses. It is used naval and aviation industries. Contribution of Greeks to Mathematical and Physical Geography Eratosthenes was a man of many talents. Geography consisted of eight volumes. He also made a chart with the chronology of the Egyptian kings of Thebes, wrote about the conquests of Alexander the Great, and made a description of Greece at that time. The first spot has to go to the man who coined the term geography, Eratosthenes (c.275-194 BC). He did not use the mythological descriptions that were common at the time, but relied on military texts to carry out his work. Vol. So, he measured the angle of elevation during the same period and at the same time in Alexandria with the help of a gnomon. Ptolemys most significant geographical innovation was the record of longitudes and latitudes in degrees on his world map for roughly 8,000 locations, allowing him to create an exact duplicate of his map. environment that offers balanced, up-to-date coverage of geology, oceanography, astronomy, and meteorology. Eratosthenes: biography and contributions to geography and mathematics Why is Eratosthenes called the father of geography? With the parallels and meridians, Eratosthenes located the known countries and cities. Tiberias Nyc Reservations, Eratosthenes was an ancient Greek astronomer, geographer, and mathematician. Using his discoveries and knowledge of its size and shape, he began to sketch it. Eratosthenes - New World Encyclopedia Learn everything about the Oceanography from scratch and become a master of this topic with quiz based flashcards. He was born in 271 BC in Cyrene, which is now known as Libya, in North Africa. III. in, Chondros, Thomas G. Archimedes Life Works and Machines. Now part of modern-day Libya, Cyrene had been founded by Greeks centuries earlier and became the capital of Pentapolis (North Africa), a country of five cities: Cyrene, Arsinoe, Berenice, Ptolemias, and Apollonia. He invented a system of latitude and longitude and he also might have calculated the distance from earth to the sun and invented the leap day. He was the first to affirm that the heavy rains in the headwaters could explain the floods in the lower part of the flow. It allows scientists to pinpoint specific locations using a system of degrees. Business Opportunities (5) . The first recorded use of the word geography was by Eratosthenes, a Greek scholar who lived from 276-194 BC who is credited with creating the discipline of geography (Eratosthenes' Geography. Humboldt and Kant. It is a large, submerged massif, about 120 km long and 80 km wide. What superannuation contributions are reportable? Contribution of Greeks to Mathematical and Physical Geography! Eratosthenes (D.W.) Roller (ed., Trans.) Oceanography 100 Karen Baker Quiz #2. Who is responsible for the first measurement of the circumference of the Earth? Eratosthenes made major contributions to geography. Arab and Muslim Contribution to Geography To begin with, most Muslim geographers such as Al- Eratosthenes was a Greek mathematician, geographer, astronomer & poet. Eratosthenes died in Alexandria, approximately in 194 BC, when he was 82 years old. These works and his great poetic abilities led the pharaoh Ptolemy III Euergetes to seek to place him as a librarian at the Library of Alexandria in the year 245 BC. During the period in which Eratosthenes was in charge of the Library of Alexandria, great advances were made in it. He created one of the earliest maps of the known world between 276-195 BC, but his greatest contribution was the concept of latitude and longitude. a. Eratosthenes of Cyrene developed longitude and latitude. History of Oceanography TIMELINE PDF Image Zoom Out. Scientific Oceanography James Cook - 1768- HMS Endeavor very talented navigator, cartographer, writer, artist diplomat, sailor, scientist, dietition Scientific Contributions: 1. He lived and worked for most of his life in the city of Alexandria in Egypt. Read about the life of Eratosthenes. [17] In his three-volume work Geography (Greek: Geographika), he described and mapped his entire known world, even dividing the Earth into five climate zones:[18] two freezing zones around the poles, two temperate zones, and a zone encompassing the equator and the tropics. He was nicknamed Beta because he was great at many things and tried to get his hands on every bit of information but never achieved the highest rank in anything; Strabo accounts Eratosthenes as a mathematician among geographers and a geographer among mathematicians.[25]. Later, the Greeks speculated on the idea that the earth was round. Phoenicians (from what is now Syria and Lebanon) navigated and traded around Mediterranean Sea, Indian Ocean, Red Sea, and Africa; 2000BC 2. They believed only rivers had currents, and named this mass of water okeanos (meaning river), from which we derived our term . Eratosthenes (l. c. 276-195 BCE) was a Greek astronomer, geographer, mathematician, and poet best known for being the first to calculate the circumference of the earth and its axial tilt. Contributions of Arab Geographers - Exclusive Notes on Geography What Is Fast Acquisition Corp. . At that time he also wrote Peri agathn kai kakn, a text that was lost. Islandwide Breakfast Delivery, Eratosthenes made many important contributions to science and mathematics. Eratosthenes, in full Eratosthenes of Cyrene, (born c. 276 bce, Cyrene, Libyadied c. 194 bce, Alexandria, Egypt), Greek scientific writer, astronomer, and poet, who made the first measurement of the size of Earth for which any details are known. Eratosthenes (born c. 276 BCE, Cyrene, Libya) was a Greek scientific writer, astronomer, and poet who made the first measurements of Earths size for which any details are known. [1] Cyrene became a place of cultivation, where knowledge blossomed. II. He uses the angles of shadows and the distance between Alexandria and Syene to arrive at a value of 24,855 miles (40,000 kilometers). Invention of Racism in Classical Antiquity. He divided the earth into 5 climatic zones: the frozen poles, under them two temperate zones and in the center a tropical belt that bordered the equator. Starting with the first prime number, two, all multiples of two are crossed off. He is also regarded as the Father of Geography.. His teachers included the scholar Lysanias of Cyrene and the philosopher Ariston of Chios who had studied under Zeno, the founder of the Stoic school of philosophy. In addition, he calculated approximate distances between them. a. Eratosthenes of Cyrene developed longitude and latitude. At Syene (now Aswn), some 800 km (500 miles) southeast of Alexandria in Egypt, the Suns rays fall vertically at noon at the summer solstice. To calculate the circumference of the earth Eratosthenes used a method that has been used until our time, this consists of measuring a meridian. This page was last edited on 26 February 2023, at 18:23. James Rennell has been called the Father of Indian Geography, and for his pioneering work on oceanography as the Father of Oceanography.. Who discovered the geography? Unfortunately, there are no documents left of his work after the destruction of the Library of Alexandria. Thu, the different type of pecialized text will vary according to the ubject and p All Rights Reserved warbletoncouncil.org - 2023. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. He studied astronomy, geography, and math. Cyrene, then a Greek city, is now the town of Shahhat in Libya. The exact length of the units (stadia) he used is doubtful, and the accuracy of his result is therefore uncertain. Under Ptolemaic rule the economy prospered, based largely on the export of horses and silphium, a plant used for rich seasoning and medicine. About 150 years later, Eratosthenes (264-194 B.C.) Euclid, Greek Eukleides, (flourished c. 300 bce, Alexandria, Egypt), the most prominent mathematician of Greco-Roman antiquity, best known for his treatise on geometry, the Elements. He also measured the degree of obliquity of the ecliptic (in effect, the tilt of Earths axis) and wrote a treatise on the octateris, an eight-year lunar-solar cycle. What does chronology mean in geography? - egszz.churchrez.org On the Ocean: The Famous Voyage of Pytheas However, it was in geography where he proved to be more skillful for he was one of the greatest of all ancient geographers. Eratosthenes also wrote Olympic Victors, a chronology of the winners of the Olympic Games. [5] He adopted view of Aristotle & regarded the shape of the earth as sphere. Review of (D.W.) Roller 'Eratosthenes' Geography. He accurately depicted the Niles route to Khartoum, as well as the two Ethiopian tributaries. The authors' texts have always been recognized for their readability, currency, dynamic art program, delivery of basic principles and instructor flexibility. [19] This book is the first recorded instance of many terms still in use today, including the name of the discipline geography. 1. Eratosthenes was a lover of the theater and wrote a series of twelve books which he titled Old Comedy. [25], This article is about the Greek scholar of the third century BC. Eratosthenes was also interested in history and created a chronology of the world from the siege of Troy to his time, taking as references the dates that appeared in literature and in political writings. For his contributions to philosophy, Eratosthenes was called the second Plato. He studied astronomy, geography, and math. He created an algorithm to find prime numbers that is known as the Sieve of Eratosthenes. Losing the ability to read and to observe nature plagued and depressed him, leading him to voluntarily starve himself to death. how do floodplains jeopardize the livelihoods of agricultural workers. Later he joined the Platonists as a pupil of Arcesilao.It was then that Eratosthenes created a work called Platonicus, in which, following Plato's method, he explored mathematical and cosmological issues. He found the circumference of the Earth to be nearly 250,000 stadia (25,000 miles). Oceanography Flashcards [2] Eratosthenes described his arc measurement technique,[14] in a book entitled .mw-parser-output .vanchor>:target~.vanchor-text{background-color:#b1d2ff}On the measure of the Earth, which has not been preserved. Earlier estimates of the circumference of Earth had been made (for example, Aristotle says that some mathematicians had obtained a value of 400,000 stadia), but no details of their methods have survived. In the second, he showed his studies on the dimensions of the earth and the last was devoted to political geography. History Of Oceanography TIMELINE | Preceden Ptolemy made contributions to astronomy, mathematics, geography, musical theory, and optics. What are the most common nonsilicate, Your floor (length x width) can be used to calculate your square footage. Eratosthenes - Wikipedia While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. Hutchinson's Biography Database 1. He died in 194BC at 82 in Alexandria. Arab Contributions To Geography And Navigation - Arab America He was also of the opinion that the spread of the world from west to east is more than from north to south. Atlantic Ocean Ocean exploration is a part of oceanography describing the exploration of ocean surfaces. What were the contributions of Eratosthenes, Hipparcus, and Ptolemy to oceanography? [9] He wrote poems: one in hexameters called Hermes, illustrating the god's life history; and another in elegiacs, called Erigone, describing the suicide of the Athenian maiden Erigone (daughter of Icarius). There it remained, approximately, for 25 years. Known For: Eratosthenes was a Greek polymath who became known as the father of geography. He also calculated the Earths tilt axis. Eratosthenes was called The Father Of Geography, since he was very knowledgeable about the earth. His mathematical work is known principally from the writings of the Greek geometer Pappus of Alexandria, and his geographical work from the first two books of the Geography of the Greek geographer Strabo. The suns rays are parallel, and the earth is round. Calculated the Earth's circumference: 40,000 km (24,840 mi) More precise, modern measurement: 40,032 km (24,860 mi) Eratosthenes' most famous contribution to science was his calculation of the circumference of the Earth, which he completed while working on the second volume of his "Geography.". He had become blind in his old age and could no longer work by 195 BCE. Eratosthenes went to Alexandria and found out that the light hit the earth at an angle of 7.2 degrees. Eratosthenes' "Geography". [6] He developed systems of latitudes and longitudes, [7] He measure accurate length of equator, [8] Circumferences of the earth by Eratosthenes 25000 miles, but actual 24860 miles, PDF Name: Eratosthenes Contribution to Geography Notes by Netset Corner, Chronologically Arranged Schools and Associate Scholars. He studied in Athens at the Lyceum. Eratosthenes contributions to Mathematics are very notable and well known. They also built a ship know as the Knarr. Term. Todays measurement is 40,075 km. Are charitable contributions deductible in 2020? Their achievements in climatology, oceanography, geomorphology, linear measurements, determination of cardinal points, limits of habitable world, sprawl of continents and oceans are highly appreciable. (Of the measurements of the Earth). Like any young Greek at the time, Eratosthenes would have studied in the local gymnasium, where he would have learned physical skills and social discourse as well as reading, writing, arithmetic, poetry, and music.[9]. Eratosthenes of Cyrene (article) | Khan Academy There he was taught Stoicism by its founder, Zeno of Citium, in philosophical lectures on living a virtuous life. Despite this, he did not believe in those projections, but in Toscanelli's, which stated that the earth was a third smaller.