life cycle assessment of disposable razors

American Medical Association (AMA). Everything You Need To Know About Polystyrene (PS).Everything You Need To Know About Polystyrene (PS), The study found that: During production, two components have to be created which are the blade and the plastic body. 11,772. This is known as a Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) This can be extremely complex because it can involve dozens of separate processes, as well as hundreds of tracked substances. For more information, please refer to our Privacy Policy. Nash, Nathaniel C. HOW BIC LOST THE EDGE TO GILLETTE. The New York Times, The New York Times, 11 Apr. The majority of life cycle human health impacts of disposable LMAs are caused by PVC use in packaging and the device itself. SimaPro is our flagship product: life cycle assessment software that gives sustainability experts, product designers and decision-makers the power to gain insight into the environmental performance of products and services, to define hotspots and to drive positive change. Shavers. BICWorld, The total amount of direct GHG emissions in 2016 was estimated at 8,689 teqCO2, i.e. The mixed plastics used in most of the razor take hundreds of years to break down in landfill, and the blades, while the metal is recyclable if separated from the rest of the product, poses a safety hazard for both the consumer and the employees who handle recyclables. Siddle, Dave. Conversely, impacts can be reduced by autoclaving more LMAs at once or with other equipment with similar decontamination requirements. Life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) covers all relevant inputs from the environment (e.g., ores and crude oil, water, land use) as well as emissions into air, water and soil (e.g., carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides). This is the fourth installment in a series of blogs in which weexplore how to design a product for circularity. Life Cycle Assessment - definition & methodology. All of these equipment-related cases occurred before the routine implementation of sterilization procedures currently used in health care facilities. This liquid material is then injected into moulds, or extruded through moulds, where it will cool and take the form of the desired cartridge and handle shape. In this section we also need to state the assumptions made during the process: The company urges users to mail packages over 15 lbs., in order to reduce the waste of mail as well, yet is not necessary. Flying staff to meetings, shipping, and distributing the product is the highest offender for the planet. Environmental Life-Cycle Assessment of Disposable Bioreactors - BioProcess InternationalBioProcess International Upstream Processing Bioprocessing begins upstream, most often with culturing of animal or microbial cells in a range of vessel types (such as bags or stirred tanks) using different controlled feeding, aerating, and process strategies. The blades do eventually dissipate within the landfill, yet, it is not cost-free, as the tungsten waste can be ultimately harmful to the environment. Here we present a life cycle assessment of 2 laryngeal mask airways (LMAs), a one-time-use disposable Unique LMA and a 40-time-use reusable Classic LMA. BIC currently holds around 11 percent market share in disposable razors (Nash). 8 John Adam Street The authors declare no conflict of interest. The biggest impact during the cartridge-based razor life-cycle is manufacturing the cartridge as this is the part which is hardest to make. Finally, the razors are packaged in cardboard and plastic, and shipped out to stores and markets globally for customers to purchase and use. Bic has attempted to lower their direct emissions by having factories world-wide and creating: a Transport Community which connects shipping managers on each continent to raise control for greenhouse gas emissions, optimize shipments and routes, and use only responsible carriers (Bic). The reusable LMA was found to have a more favorable environmental profile than the disposable LMA as used at Yale New Haven Hospital. (iii)What are the strategic lifecycle challenges for paramount's current products as well as for clean edge? After the end of their recommended lifetime, reusable LMAs were also placed in municipal solid waste containers. The disposable LMA consisted largely of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic, and the reusable LMA consisted primarily of silicone. One of the materials used is polypropylene, a thermoplastic addition polymer made from the combination of propylene monomers (Creative Mechanisms Staff, Can J Anaesth 2001;48:40912, 22. Kelly, John. The largest difference in environmental impacts is seen in the impact category of carcinogenesis, in which reusable LMAs cause 5% of the impacts of disposable LMAs. Life cycle assessment software I used GaBi 6 software, produced by PE International. Each year in Italy, millions of tons of fruits and vegetables are harvested, packed and transported to national and foreign retail outlets. However, given the environmental toll to such a fast accumulating, and non-biodegradable product, waste management must be more considered by both the manufacturers and the buyers. Amersfoort, The Netherlands: Product Ecology (PR) Consultants, 2011, 11. Europe, Plastic News. A Life Cycle Assessment is the systematic analysis of the environmental impact of products during their entire life cycle. Sustainable Development Report. These are the reasons why I will carry out an Eco-Indicator Assessment instead of a full LCA. The metal liquid then goes through a strengthening process called annealing. Chu L, Mathur P, Trudell J, Brock-Utne J. Depending upon on how the razor is packaged, the finished cartridge may or may not be assembled onto the handle of the razor, as some companies choose to package the handle detached the cartridge(s). A 20-mL disposable syringe was used during device placement to inflate the cuffs of both types of LMAs to ensure proper fit, and a procedure was then performed. According to studies done by the EPA, tungsten steel was originally tested as a stable metal in soil that does not dissolve easily in water (EPA). Convenience is a potential advantage for disposable LMAs, and facilities that use reusable LMAs must ensure that a variety of sizes are always available when needed. Safety Razor.How Products Are Made, The LMA, within the heat seal pouch, was then placed in the steam autoclave sterilizing machine (Castle/Getinge MC 3522). Growing awareness of the negative impacts from the practice of health care on the environment and public health calls for the routine inclusion of life cycle criteria into the decision-making process of device selection. Ann Fr Anesth Reanim 2006;25:8114, 7. The Ramboll Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) found that, assuming realistic usage over a year, the energy consumption involved in the use phase of reusable plastic and traditional crockery, during in-store or out-sourced washing and drying, outweighed the environmental impact of single-use paper dishes. After the products are packaged, there has to be a way for them to get to the end consumer. E-LCA is a time tested assessment technique that evaluates environmental performance throughout the life cycle of a product or from performing a service. Since BICs products do not go to a single location it is impossible to give an exact number for BICs energy usage in transportation. BIC Group, 2016, For You For Everyone Registration Document. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2002/03 and 2005/06, to include an assessment of the effects of a range of behavioural assumptions on the life cycle environmental impacts of the reusable nappy types, and to compare these with each other and with modern disposable nappies. : Uses, Benefits, and Safety, 17 June 2019, Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2000 rev, 25. Life-cycle assessment stages LCA is the most common tool for quantifying the environmental effects associated with a product, process, or service's entire life (Baumann and Tillman 2004).LCA was performed in accordance with the international standards of the ISO 14040 and ISO 14044 . Data is temporarily unavailable. If all 2.6 billion of those razors each weight 8.8 grams, then the total amount of waste produced would be around 25,220 tonnes. Packaging is an . Polystyrene is not biodegradable and takes hundreds of years to break down. It is at this stage that very small amounts of other metals such as iron, silicon, and chromium may be added to the carbide to increase its strength and durability. Rogers, Tony. 3. For climate change impacts specifically, the reusable LMA contributes 7.4 kg CO2e of GHGs over its life cycle, and the equivalent 40 disposable LMAs contribute 11.3 kg CO2e, or approximately the equivalent to burning a gallon (4 L) of gasoline. Cad M, Webb T, Bjorksten A. You Asked, We Answered. Chronicle, 12 June 2015, Our team of experts has many years of experience in the ecological evaluation of products and services. This practice meets American Society of Anesthesiologists' recommendations for infection control for equipment requiring high-level disinfection.14. Then we collected and structured the data in phase 2. Each manufacturing plant or node in the supply chain is referred to as agate-to-gate (GTG) life cycle inventory. Main methodological choices . There are only two components for the BIC disposable razors which are the plastic body and razor blade. When designing a product for circularity it is often difficult to know where to begin. The number of times an LMA is reused is a particularly uncertain assumption, because there have been reports of premature disposal.16 Use in excess of the manufacturer recommended 40 times has also been reported,17 and 100 to 200 uses appears to be possible with proper handling and preuse checks.1821 Here, 10, 20, 30, 60, 80, and 100 cycles are considered as alternative assumptions. Highly effective in driving partnerships, public policies and projects that accelerate the shift towards a sustainable built environment. The cartridge-based razor had a slightly higher impact due to the rubber parts which cant be separated from the plastic body. LMA Classic Product Specifications, 2011, 10. These results will then be used to inform the design process and improve the redesigned razor. Disposable razors are a product that can be found in almost any average bathroom. Safety Assessment of Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) Released from PVC Medical Devices. For a number of perioperative textiles, surgical instruments, and anesthetic devices, a life cycle assessment (LCA) has been done and has shown reusables to be environmentally favorable to disposables [ 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23 ]. In life cycle assessment, the basis of comparison is called the functional unit. For this report, the functional unit of the disposable and reusable LMAs was taken to be maintenance of airway patency by 40 disposable LMAs or 40 uses of 1 reusable LMA.