what is the population in managua?

)industrial: 73.6 million cubic meters (2017 est. )crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est. Leading up to the lagoon is Calle del Comercio (Commerce Street), which leads to the Monumento al Liberalismo (Monument to Liberalism), built in the late 1930s by the Liberal party in honor of President Anastasio Somoza Garca. Nicaraguan aid to leftist rebels in El Salvador prompted the US to sponsor anti-Sandinista contra guerrillas through much of the 1980s. )30.051 (2017 est. Group of answer choicesnosmeteles, Mis abuelos _____________ regalan calcetines para la Navidad a mi hermano y a m.te [57][58][59] The number of gang members was estimated at 4,500 throughout the country, lower than all of its Northern neighbors in the region except Belize. Compared to western prices, alcoholic beverages, theater visits and cinema tickets are relatively inexpensive. In the lead-up to the 2021 presidential election, authorities arrested over 40 individuals linked to the political opposition, including presidential candidates, private sector leaders, NGO workers, human rights defenders, and journalists. [49], Within the Revolution Square is the Parque Central (Central Park) which contains many historical monuments, some dedicated to national heroes and poets. [45] As of March 2008, homosexuality is no longer illegal and no longer carries a prison sentence. ), forest revenues: 1.26% of GDP (2018 est. Download Historical Data Save as Image From: To: Zoom: However, income distribution is very uneven, and the poor, agriculturalists, and indigenous people continue to have less access to healthcare services. Nearby is the Monument to Sandino which is a silhouette of Augusto C. Sandino, one of Nicaragua's national heroes. [citation needed] The project included the possibility of building a metro that would cross over the old center of the capital that remains rather unchanged since the 1972 earthquake. [60] In 2003, the National Police of Nicaragua recognized gangs committed only 0.51% of all crimes. )3.68% (2020 est. [38] The city is also home to many communities of immigrants and ex-pats from countries including but not limited to Taiwan, China, Germany, the United States, Palestine, and Latin American countries. Under the rule of Anastasio Somoza Garca and his family (19361979), the city was rebuilt and began to grow rapidly. It is a neo-classical monument which consists of a round pedestal, topped by a balustrade surrounding a fountain containing a gondola filled with singing cherubs, and at the center, a pillar topped with a statue of Daro dressed in a Roman tunic protected by an angel. Ethnic/Racial groups Non-genetic phenotype data from the CIA World Factbook establish that Nicaragua's population self-reports as 69% Mestizos, and 17% White with the majority being of full Spanish descent . Inside the National Palace of Culture is the National Museum, containing archeological finds with some examples of pre-Columbian pottery, statues, and other findings. It may have originated from the term Mana-ahuac, which in the Nahuatl language translates to "adjacent to the water" or site "surrounded by water". (male 180,441/female 231,392), total dependency ratio: 54.4youth dependency ratio: 46.4elderly dependency ratio: 8potential support ratio: 12.6 (2021 est. )major-language sample(s): La Libreta Informativa del Mundo, la fuente indispensable de informacin bsica. Schmidt K.M. )5.38% (2019 est.). Managua has been the capital of Nicaragua since 1857. )agricultural: 1.185 billion cubic meters (2017 est. What is the Capital of Nicaragua? | Mappr The Dennis Martnez National Stadium has a capacity for 40,000, making it the largest stadium in Nicaragua. in 2017). Omissions? Population 6,203,441 Population Growth Rate 1.05% Urban Population 57.5% Population in Major Urban Areas MANAGUA (capital) 970,000 A disastrous earthquake in 1931 and large fire in 1936[11] destroyed much of the city. The project costs $100 million and has been considered as a possibility for the nation's capital. The highest mountain peak (Pico Mogotn) is at . Nicaragua has committed executions, crimes against humanity, U.N. group )services: 60% (2017 est. In Managua there are two golf courses, the better-known of which is Nejapa Golf & Country Club. )geothermal: 16.7% of total installed capacity (2020 est. [8] The ancient footprints of Acahualinca are 2,100-year-old fossils[9] discovered along the shores of Lake Managua. There is also the bust of Professor Josefa Toledo de Aguerri, who was an educator, philanthropist, writer, social activist, and one of the first feminists in the Americas. Managua, the largest city in the country, is also its centre of commerce and culture. Another festival taking place since 2003 is the Alegria por la Vida (Happiness for Life) Carnaval is celebrated in Managua at the beginning of the month of March. [24] About 18 percent of Nicaragua's total budget is invested in primary, secondary and higher education. ), total: 18.63 deaths/1,000 live birthsmale: 21.7 deaths/1,000 live birthsfemale: 15.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est. A bitter rivalry over which city should hold the honor of being Nicaragua's capital eventually led to compromise: the founding of Managua in 1852. [67], Most bus coaches in Managua are fabricated by DINA S.A. and Mercedes-Benz. In 1950, the population of Managua was 109,903. , ng something close to the person taking the picture, and to ladies coming from further away. A third road, under construction, will connect Bluefields, South Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region with Managua via Nueva Guinea. Today, the city is a major economic hub for both the country and Central America. Throughout the Spanish colonial period, Managua was recognized only as an Indian town, outranked by the relatively nearby Spanish cities of Len and Granada. )5.21% (2019 est. In 2007, after a successful literacy campaign, Managua was declared by the Mayor of Managua and the Sandinista party newspaper to be the first capital city in Central America to be rid of illiteracy. [41], During the Santo Domingo festival some people cover themselves in a mix of grease and motor oil to pay promises to the saints while others wear masks and costumes.[42]. Constructed of Carrara marble, Daro's monument is one of the greatest in the country. Notable landmarks include Daro Park, with its monument to Nicaraguas famed poet Rubn Daro; the National Palace; the 20th-century cathedral; the Carlos Fonseca Memorial; and the Tower of Democracy. [33] Multinational companies such as Wal-Mart, Telefonica, Union Fenosa, and Parmalat have offices and operations in Managua. Corrections? The airport, known as Aeropuerto Sandino or MGA to locals, serves as the primary hub for connections at both domestic and international levels. What is the population of Managua 2020? - Sage-Answer Adjetivos demostrativos: This, these, that, and those. [17] Managua is also Nicaragua's main political, social, cultural, educational and economic hub. Popular music includes the Palo de Mayo, Merengue, Cumbia and Latin pop among other Latin music genres, as well as American pop and rock. agriculture: 15.5% (2017 est. It competes extensively with its counterpart, TicaBus, a Costa Rican bus company. ), $6.617 billion (2021 est.) Several new hotels including Crowne Plaza, Best Western, InterContinental, Holiday Inn, and Hilton currently have facilities in Managua. Road development and market access on Nicaragua's Caribbean coast: implications for household fishing and farming practices. Nicaragua, located in Central America, may have been inhabited from as long ago as 8,000 years.Evidence of one of the Americas' earliest human . ms de, Select the correct answer. )note: official data; data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by Government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as retirement, medical care, and unemployment, debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions; Nicaragua rebased its GDP figures in 2012, which reduced the figures for debt as a percentage of GDP, -$316.6 million (2021 est. [26] According to a study done by Amrica Economa INCAE ranked as the number one business school in Latin America in 2004 and 2005[27] and ranked in the top ten international business schools by The Wall Street Journal in 2006.[28]. The Metropolitan Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception, more commonly referred to as the New Cathedral, was designed by architect Ricardo Legorreta and inaugurated in 1993. Managua is the national education center, with most of the nation's prestigious universities and higher education institutions based there. )imports of goods and services: -55.4% (2017 est. Managua Population: (2023 est.) Since the late 1990s and early 2000, many casinos and karaoke bars opened and have remained popular attractions for Nicaraguans and foreign visitors. Today roughly 300,000 Nicaraguans are permanent residents of Costa Rica - about 75% of the foreign population - and thousands more migrate seasonally for work, many illegally. The team reached the Final Four at the 2016 Liga Centroamericana de clubes de baloncesto. [citation needed] The cathedral survived the 1931 earthquake, but was heavily damaged during the 1972 earthquake, which eventually led to the construction of a new cathedral located in another part of Managua. )beer: 1.57 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est. The city has a population of roughly 1,800,000, composed predominantly of mestizos and whites; making it the second most populous city in Central America after Guatemala City. me Only five lesser-known presidential candidates of mostly small parties allied to ORTEGA's Sandinistas were allowed to run against ORTEGA in the November 2021 election. The National Palace of Culture has an exhibition of Nicaraguan art from the time previous to its independence. Schmincke, H.-U., S. Kutterolf, W. Perez, J. Rausch J, A. Freundt, and W. Strauch, 2008. Eventually, the church's original concrete and gray surface became accepted and Catholic pilgrims began to embrace the church as it was. ), total petroleum production: 200 bbl/day (2021 est. All of Nicaragua's main roads lead to Managua, and there are good public transportation connections to and from the capital. ), number of registered air carriers: 1 (2020)inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 7, total: 122,438 to 3,047 m: 31,524 to 2,437 m: 2914 to 1,523 m: 3under 914 m: 4 (2021), total: 1351,524 to 2,437 m: 1914 to 1,523 m: 15under 914 m: 119 (2021), total: 23,897 km (2014)paved: 3,346 km (2014)unpaved: 20,551 km (2014), 2,220 km (2011) (navigable waterways as well as the use of the large Lake Managua and Lake Nicaragua; rivers serve only the sparsely populated eastern part of the country), total: 5by type: general cargo 1, oil tanker 1, other 3 (2021), Army of Nicaragua (Ejercito de Nicaragua, EN): Land Forces (Fuerza Terrestre); Naval Forces (Fuerza Naval); Air Forces (Fuerza Area); Special Operations Command (Comando de Operaciones Especiales); Nicaraguan National Police (2022)note: both the military and the police report directly to the president, 0.6% of GDP (2021 est. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree. Also pending is a mega-project to reconstruct the old center of Managua, and to introduce a light rail system, to alleviate future transportation problems in Managua. Managua's prime location between the Northern Pan-American highway and the Southern Highway make it an ideal hub for local, national and international buses. Environmental Conservation. )31.553 (2018 est. This is Managua's moment and here are the best things to see and do in the city. There's a different slogan or theme every year. Spain ruled Nicaragua and many countries in Central and South America during the 16th century until the early 19th century.. Nicaragua gained its independence from Spain in 1821 and became part of the Mexican empire for several years. note: data are in current year dollars$5.939 billion (2020 est.) ), total population: 75.05 yearsmale: 72.84 yearsfemale: 77.36 years (2023 est. This event is celebrated with parades, floats, live music, food and dancing as well as the march of the Carnival Queen. Since a population census has not currently been carried out, the estimate provided by the National Institute for Development Information INIDE is used, which estimates that by 2021 the population of the capital is 1,350,000 which corresponds to approximately 1.3 million people. Course Hero uses AI to attempt to automatically extract content from documents to surface to you and others so you can study better, e.g., in search results, to enrich docs, and more. Such a building whose intention was to serve as a place of worship was expected to have some sort of vibrant color. Violent opposition to governmental manipulation and corruption spread to all classes by 1978 and resulted in a short-lived civil war that brought a civic-military coalition, spearheaded by the Marxist Sandinista guerrillas led by Daniel ORTEGA Saavedra to power in 1979. The stadium was named in honor of Nicaragua's first baseball player to play in Major League Baseball. The Augusto C. Sandino International Airport (formerly Managua International Airport) is the largest and only international airport in Nicaragua. The monument stands 59feet tall. [6] The Dennis Martnez National Stadium is home to many baseball games of Managua's Boer team. Managua - Wikitravel )subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 3 (2020 est. Nicaragua is comparatively low at an average elevation of 298 meters above sea level. note: data are in current year dollars$5.342 billion (2020 est.) )$496.7 million (2020 est. Managua, Nicaragua Population (2022) - Population Stat Also on the crater lip of Tiscapa is the Mazmorras, a prison where current President Daniel Ortega and many other political prisoners were tortured during the Somoza regime. At the time of its construction in the late 1960s, it was the most modern stadium in Central America. 1. note: data are in current year dollars$6.252 billion (2019 est.) Nicaragua Population 2023 (Live) - worldpopulationreview.com Other universities are the Central American University (1961), the Polytechnical University of Nicaragua (1968; university status 1976), the National University of Engineering (1983), the American University (1992), and Redemptoris Mater Catholic University of Nicaragua (1992). And seven bus routes connect to the nearby Ciudad Sandino. Britain occupied the Caribbean Coast in the first half of the 19th century, but gradually ceded control of the region in subsequent decades. Despite being one of the poorest countries in Latin America, Nicaragua has improved its access to potable water and sanitation and has ameliorated its life expectancy, infant and child mortality, and immunization rates. Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic. nos Critics pointed to the fact that buildings of particular importance, especially those of colonial heritage, were painted in bright colors. Founded in 1819, Managua became the national capital in 1852. [64] The airport was remodeled by architect Roberto Sansn[65] and has now been converted into one of the region's most modern airports. Residences, government buildings and entire avenues were demolished. Spanish (official) 95.3%, Miskito 2.2%, Mestizo of the Caribbean coast 2%, other 0.5%; note - English and indigenous languages found on the Caribbean coast (2005 est. Although promoting or practicing homosexuality was illegal in Nicaragua,[44] there is a modest gay social scene in Managua. [21] Nicaragua's higher education system consists of 48 universities and 113 colleges, vocational and technical institutes which serve students in the areas of electronics, computer systems and sciences, agroforestry, construction and trade-related services. Nicaraguan men have been migrating seasonally to Costa Rica to harvest bananas and coffee since the early 20th century. Located on Lake Managua's south western shores is, Managua - the capital, the largest and the most populated city of Nicaragua. )refined petroleum consumption: 35,100 bbl/day (2019 est. After losing free and fair elections in 1990, 1996, and 2001, former Sandinista President Daniel ORTEGA was elected president in 2006, 2011, 2016, and most recently in 2021. ), at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female15-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/femaletotal population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2023 est. There are 36 bus routes in Managua. The city spends most of the year seeing strong heat and a bright shining sun. Managua is home to many types of museums, some art museums include the Julio Cortzar Museum and the Archivo Flmico de la Cinemateca Nacional. nos Today, it houses the National Archive, the National Library, as well as the National Museum which is open to the public. Also part of the exhibit is the Hall of National History and the Hall of National Symbols. GENEVA (2 March 2023) - Widespread human rights violations that amount to crimes against humanity are being committed against civilians by Nicaragua's Government for political reasons, the Group of Human Rights Experts on Nicaragua said in a new report that calls for the international community to impose sanctions on institutions or individuals involved. ), conventional long form: Republic of Nicaraguaconventional short form: Nicaragualocal long form: Republica de Nicaragualocal short form: Nicaraguaetymology: Nicarao was the name of the largest indigenous settlement at the time of Spanish arrival; conquistador Gil GONZALEZ Davila, who explored the area (1622-23), combined the name of the community with the Spanish word "agua" (water), referring to the two large lakes in the west of the country (Lake Managua and Lake Nicaragua), name: Managuageographic coordinates: 12 08 N, 86 15 Wtime difference: UTC-6 (1 hour behind Washington, DC, during Standard Time)etymology: may derive from the indigenous Nahuatl term "mana-ahuac," which translates as "adjacent to the water" or a site "surrounded by water"; the city is situated on the southwestern shore of Lake Managua, 15 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento) and 2 autonomous regions* (regiones autonomistas, singular - region autonoma); Boaco, Carazo, Chinandega, Chontales, Costa Caribe Norte*, Costa Caribe Sur*, Esteli, Granada, Jinotega, Leon, Madriz, Managua, Masaya, Matagalpa, Nueva Segovia, Rio San Juan, Rivas, history: several previous; latest adopted 19 November 1986, effective 9 January 1987amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or assent of at least half of the National Assembly membership; passage requires approval by 60% of the membership of the next elected Assembly and promulgation by the president of the republic; amended several times, last in 2021, civil law system; Supreme Court may review administrative acts, accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; non-party state to the ICCt, citizenship by birth: yescitizenship by descent only: yesdual citizenship recognized: no, except in cases where bilateral agreements existresidency requirement for naturalization: 4 years, chief of state: President Jose Daniel ORTEGA Saavedra (since 10 January 2007); Vice President Rosario MURILLO Zambrana (since 10 January 2017); note - the president is both chief of state and head of governmenthead of government: President Jose Daniel ORTEGA Saavedra (since 10 January 2007); Vice President Rosario MURILLO Zambrana (since 10 January 2017)cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the presidentelections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by qualified plurality vote for a 5-year term (no term limits as of 2014); election last held on 7 November 2021 (next to be held on 1 November 2026)election results: 2021: Jose Daniel ORTEGA Saavedra reelected president for a fourth consecutive term; percent of vote - Jose Daniel ORTEGA Saavedra (FSLN) 75.9%, Walter ESPINOZA (PLC) 14.3%, Guillermo OSORNO (CCN) 3.3%, Marcelo MONTIEL (ALN) 3.1%, other 3.4%2016: Jose Daniel ORTEGA Saavedra reelected president for a third consecutive term; percent of vote - Jose Daniel ORTEGA Saavedra (FSLN) 72.4%, Maximino RODRIGUEZ (PLC) 15%, Jose del Carmen ALVARADO (PLI) 4.5%, Saturnino CERRATO Hodgson (ALN) 4.3%, other 3.7%, description: unicameral National Assembly or Asamblea Nacional (92 statutory seats, current 91; 70 members in multi-seat constituencies, representing the country's 15 departments and 2 autonomous regions, and 20 members in a single nationwide constituency directly elected by party-list proportional representation vote; up to 2 seats reserved for the previous president and the runner-up candidate in the previous presidential election; members serve 5-year terms)elections: last held on 7 November 2021 (next to be held on 1 November 2026)election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - FSLN 75, PLC 10, ALN 2, APRE 1, PLI 2, YATAMA 1; composition - men 45, women 46, percent of women 50.6%, highest court(s): Supreme Court or Corte Suprema de Justicia (consists of 16 judges organized into administrative, civil, criminal, and constitutional chambers)judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges elected by the National Assembly to serve 5-year staggered termssubordinate courts: Appeals Court; first instance civil, criminal, and labor courts; military courts are independent of the Supreme Court, Alliance for the Republic or APRE [Carlos CANALES]Alternative for Change or AC (operates in a political alliance with the FSLN) [Orlando Jose TARDENCILLA]Autonomous Liberal Party or PAL [Rene Margarito BELLO ROMERO]Caribbean Unity Movement or PAMUC [Armando Francisco ARISTA FLORES]Christian Unity Party or PUC (operates in a political alliance with the FSLN) [Guillermo Daniel ORTEGA REYES]Citizens for Liberty or CxL [Carmella ROGERS AUMBURN]; note - barred from participating in the presidential election by the Supreme Electoral Council on 6 August 2021Conservative Party or PC [Alfredo CESAR Aguirre]Democratic Restoration Party or PRD [Saturnino CERRATO]; note - canceled by the Supreme Electoral Council on 18 May 2021Independent Liberal Party or PLI [Mario ASENSIO]Liberal Constitutionalist Party or PLC [Maria Haydee OSUNA]Moskitia Indigenous Progressive Movement or MOSKITIA PAWANKA (operates in a political alliance with the FSLN) [Wycliff Diego BLANDON]Multiethnic Indigenous Party or PIM (operates in a political alliance with the FSLN) [Carla Elvis WHITE HODGSON]Nationalist Liberal Party or PLN (operates in a political alliance with the FSLN) [Constantino Raul VELASQUEZ]Nicaraguan Liberal Alliance or ALN [Alejandro MEJIA Ferreti]Nicaraguan Party of the Christian Path or CCN [Guillermo OSORNO]Nicaraguan Resistance Party or PRN (operates in a political alliance with the FSLN) [Julio Cesar BLANDON SANCHEZ]Sandinista National Liberation Front or FSLN [Jose Daniel ORTEGA Saavedra]Sandinista Renovation Movement or MRS [Suyen BARAHONA Cuan]; note - canceled by the Supreme Electoral Council on 21 June 2008; in January 2021, they rebranded and now call themselves Democratic Renovation Union or UNAMOSSons of Mother Earth or YATAMA [Brooklyn RIVERA]The New Sons of Mother Earth Movement or MYATAMARAN (operates in a political alliance with the FSLN) [Osorno Salomon COLEMAN], BCIE, CACM, CD, CELAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA (observer), MIGA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, Petrocaribe, SICA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, chief of mission: Ambassador Francisco Obadiah CAMPBELL Hooker (since 28 June 2010)chancery: 1627 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009telephone: [1] (202) 939-6570; [1] (202) 939-6573FAX: [1] (202) 939-6545consulate(s) general: Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco, chief of mission: Ambassador Kevin K. SULLIVAN (since 14 November 2018)embassy: Kilometer 5.5 Carretera Sur, Managuamailing address: 3240 Managua Place, Washington DC 20521-3240telephone: [505] 2252-7100,FAX: [505] 2252-7250email address and website: ACS.Managua@state.govhttps://ni.usembassy.gov/, three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and blue with the national coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a triangle encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE NICARAGUA on the top and AMERICA CENTRAL on the bottom; the banner is based on the former blue-white-blue flag of the Federal Republic of Central America; the blue bands symbolize the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, while the white band represents the land between the two bodies of waternote: similar to the flag of El Salvador, which features a round emblem encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE EL SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA CENTRAL centered in the white band; also similar to the flag of Honduras, which has five blue stars arranged in an X pattern centered in the white band, turquoise-browed motmot (bird); national colors: blue, white, name: "Salve a ti, Nicaragua" (Hail to Thee, Nicaragua)lyrics/music: Salomon Ibarra MAYORGA/traditional, arranged by Luis Abraham DELGADILLOnote: although only officially adopted in 1971, the music was approved in 1918 and the lyrics in 1939; the tune, originally from Spain, was used as an anthem for Nicaragua from the 1830s until 1876, total World Heritage Sites: 2 (both cultural)selected World Heritage Site locales: Ruins of Len Viejo; Len Cathedral, low-income Central American economy; until 2018, nearly 20 years of sustained GDP growth; recent struggles due to COVID-19, political instability, and hurricanes; significant remittances; increasing poverty and food scarcity since 2005; sanctions limit investment, $38.628 billion (2021 est. New government buildings were erected, industry developed, and universities were established. )nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est. . El Nuevo Diario. United Nations - World Population Prospects, Managua, Nicaragua Metro Area Population 1950-2023, The current metro area population of Managua in 2023 is, The metro area population of Managua in 2022 was, The metro area population of Managua in 2021 was, The metro area population of Managua in 2020 was. ), -2.04 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est. University level institutions account for 6% of the 18 percent. ), total: 27.3 yearsmale: 26.4 yearsfemale: 28.2 years (2020 est. Almost every fourth Nicaraguan is a Managuan and the city still grows rapidly through people moving in, making a person "born and raised" in Managua something of a rare sight. More than half of all residents (59%) live within cities. les, brainly.com/question/10237353?referrer=searchResults. )$754.1 million (2019 est. [citation needed] Residential and commercial buildings have been constructed on the outskirts of the city, in the same locales that were once used as refuge camps for those who were homeless after the earthquake. The most centrally located is the Tiscapa Lagoon in the Tiscapa Lagoon Natural Reserve. )exports of goods and services: 41.2% (2017 est. )0.6% of GDP (2019) (approximately $170 million)0.6% of GDP (2018) (approximately $180 million)0.6% of GDP (2017) (approximately $190 million), approximately 12,000 active personnel (10,000 Army; 800 Navy; 1,200 Air Force) (2022), the Nicaraguan military's inventory includes mostly secondhand Russian/Soviet-era equipment; in recent years, Russia has been the leading arms supplier to Nicaragua (2022), 18-30 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription; tour of duty 18-36 months; requires Nicaraguan nationality and 6th-grade education (2022), the modern Army of Nicaragua was created in 1979 as the Sandinista Popular Army (1979-1984); prior to 1979, the military was known as the National Guard, which was organized and trained by the US in the 1920s and 1930s; the first commander of the National Guard, Anastasio SOMOZA GARCIA, seized power in 1937 and ran the country as a military dictator until his assassination in 1956; his sons ran the country either directly or through figureheads until the Sandinistas came to power in 1979; the defeated National Guard was disbanded by the Sandinistas (2022), Nicaragua-El Salvador-Honduras: the 1992 ICJ ruling for El Salvador and Honduras advised a tripartite resolution to establish a maritime boundary in the Gulf of Fonseca, which considers Honduran access to the Pacific; the court ruled, rather, that the Gulf ofFonsecarepresents a condominium, with control being shared by El Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua; the decision allowed for the possibility that the three nations could divide the waters at a later date if they wished to do so, Nicaragua-Costa Rica: Nicaragua and Costa Rica regularly file border dispute cases with the ICJ over the delimitations of the San Juan River and the northern tip of Calero Island, virtually uninhabited areas claimed by both countries; there is an ongoing case in the ICJ to determine Pacific and Atlantic ocean maritime borders as well as land borders; in 2009, the ICJ ruled that Costa Rican vessels carrying out police activities could not use the river, but official Costa Rican vessels providing essential services to riverside inhabitants and Costa Rican tourists could travel freely on the river; in 2011, the ICJ provisionally ruled that both countries must remove personnel from the disputed area; in 2013, the ICJ rejected Nicaragua's 2012 suit to halt Costa Rica's construction of a highway paralleling the river on the grounds of irreparable environmental damage; in 2013, the ICJ, regarding the disputed territory, ordered that Nicaragua should refrain from dredging or canal construction and refill and repair damage caused by trenches connecting the river to the Caribbean and upheld its 2010 ruling that Nicaragua must remove all personnel; in early 2014, Costa Rica brought Nicaragua to the ICJ over offshore oil concessions in the disputed region; in 2018, the ICJ ruled that Nicaragua must remove a military base from a contested coastal area near the San Juan River, and that Costa Rica had sovereignty over the northern part of Isla Portillos, including the coast, but excluding Harbour Head Lagoon; additionally, Honduras was required to pay reparations for environmental damage to part of the wetlands at the mouth of the San Juan River, Nicaragua-Colombia: Nicaragua filed a case with the International Court of Justice (ICJ) against Colombia in 2013 over the delimitation of the Continental shelf beyond the 200 nautical miles from the Nicaraguan coast, as well as over the alleged violation by Colombia of Nicaraguan maritime space in the Caribbean Sea, which contains rich oil and fish resources; as of September 2021, Colombia refuses to abide by the ICJ ruling, tier rating: Tier 3 Nicaragua does not fully meet the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so and was downgraded to Tier 3; the government identified slightly more victims than in the previous reporting period and prosecuted a trafficker; however, no traffickers were convicted and victim identification remained inadequate; authorities did not investigate, prosecute, or convict government employees complicit in trafficking; the government provided no victim services; prosecution, protection, and prevention efforts in the two Caribbean autonomous regions of Nicaragua continued to be much weaker than in the rest of the country (2020)trafficking profile: human traffickers exploit domestic and foreign victims in Nicaragua and Nicaraguans abroad; women, children, and migrants are most at risk; women and children are subject to sex trafficking within the country and its two Caribbean autonomous regions, as well as in other Central American countries, Mexico, Spain, and the United States; traffickers used social media to recruit victims with promises of high-paying jobs in restaurants, hotels, construction, and security outside of Nicaragua where they are subjected to sex or labor trafficking; traffickers exploit children through forced participation in illegal drug production and trafficking; children and persons with disabilities are subjected to forced begging; Nicaragua is also a destination for child sex tourists from the United States, Canada, and Western Europe, a transit route for drug traffickers smuggling cocaine from South America through Mexico into the United States via maritime and air routes, total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030, Children under the age of 5 years underweight, International law organization participation, Gini Index coefficient - distribution of family income, Household income or consumption by percentage share, Civil aircraft registration country code prefix, Military and security service personnel strengths, Military equipment inventories and acquisitions, Center for the Study of Intelligence (CSI).